Why is p falciparum resistance to chloroquine

Discussion in 'Chloroquine Without A Doctor Prescription' started by e.izmalkova, 16-Mar-2020.

  1. v1tman Moderator

    Why is p falciparum resistance to chloroquine


    Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s.

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    Abstract. The development of chloroquine as an antimalarial drug and the subsequent evolution of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains had major impacts on global public health in the 20th century. In P. falciparum the cause of the most lethal human malaria, chloroquine resistance is linked to multiple mutations in PfCRT, a protein that likely functions as a transporter in the parasite’s. Drug-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. The samples were processed and analysed using genes–P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant transporter pfcrt and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 pfmdr1 via sequencing of PCR amplicon from 2015 to 2017. Malaria occurred throughout the year and P. falciparum accounted for 89% of total malaria cases.

    Nowadays, other drugs, and notably ones containing artemisinin-based compounds, are preferentially used to treat uncomplicated malaria and especially in areas where chloroquine resistance is known to occur. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America.

    Why is p falciparum resistance to chloroquine

    On the Mechanism of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium., Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World - CDC

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  5. The Greater Mekong subregion in Southeast Asia is probably the most alarming source of resistance, from which P. falciparum resistant to chloroquine and pyrimethamine.

    • Evolution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance..
    • Epidemiology of malaria and chloroquine resistance in Mizoram..
    • Hydroxychloroquine is much less active than chloroquine..

    Chloroquine is the drug of choice for travel to areas where chloroquine resistance has not been described. Chloroquine is active against the erythrocytic forms Fig. 6.3 of sensitive strains of all species of malaria, and it is also gametocidal against P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. From the 1940s-1990s, chloroquine was the mainstay of malaria therapy worldwide. Selection of P.falciparum-resistant isolates was first reported in Southeast Asia Thai-Cambodian border and South. The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs has thwarted malaria control efforts and remains a major obstacle to malaria elimination throughout the world. Chloroquine was one of the first drugs to be used on a wide scale for the treatment of malaria. Chloroquine resistance emerged independently in different geographic regions.

     
  6. HardDmytro User

    Synchonising the timing and dosage of medicines with our internal body clocks makes them work better with fewer side effects. When Is the Best Time to Take Vitamin D? Morning or Night? Plaquenil and Pepcid - Plaquenil and diarrhea -
     
  7. OlgaStarXXXL New Member

    Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug related to primaquine. Tafenoquine Approved for Malaria Prophylaxis and Treatment. Efficacy and Safety Study of Tafenoquine TQ Co-administered. Tafenoquine approved by US FDA for radical cure of vivax.
     
  8. wanderer Well-Known Member

    Too Little of a Good Thing Hydroxychloroquine in. The role of hydroxychloroquine HCQ for achieving this control is now recognized. Several studies demonstrate that patients with SLE who continue HCQ during pregnancy have decreased flares and improved pregnancy outcomes, including longer fetal gestation and infants with higher birth weight3,4.

    Effects of chloroquine on viral infections an old drug.