Chloroquine invented

Discussion in 'Online Canadian Pharmacy' started by Jab, 04-Mar-2020.

  1. Irsen User

    Chloroquine invented


    It may have both an anti-spirochaete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. And caution is required if patients have certain heart conditions, diabetes, psoriasis etc.

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    Find patient medical information for Chloroquine Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. Subsequently, chloroquine resistant P. falciparum probably arose in four separate locations starting with the Thai-Cambodian border around 1957; in Venezuela and parts of Colombia around 1960; in Papua New Guinea in the mid-1970s and in Africa starting in 1978 in Kenya and Tanzania and spreading by 1983 to Sudan, Uganda, Zambia and Malawi. Quinine remained the mainstay of malaria treatment until the second half of the 20th century when the synthetic product chloroquine was invented. However, chloroquine soon started showing resistance to malaria. This has been the case with most other synthetically produced products which followed the introduction of chloroquine.

    For prolonged treatment of lupus or arthritis, adverse effects include the acute symptoms, plus altered eye pigmentation, acne, anaemia, bleaching of hair, blisters in mouth and eyes, blood disorders, convulsions, vision difficulties, diminished reflexes, emotional changes, excessive coloring of the skin, hearing loss, hives, itching, liver problems or liver failure, loss of hair, muscle paralysis, weakness or atrophy, nightmares, psoriasis, reading difficulties, tinnitus, skin inflammation and scaling, skin rash, vertigo, weight loss, and occasionally urinary incontinence. The most common adverse effects are a mild nausea and occasional stomach cramps with mild diarrhea. For short-term treatment of acute malaria, adverse effects can include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heart problems, reduced appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting.

    Chloroquine invented

    Chloroquine - an overview ScienceDirect Topics, History of antimalarials Medicines for Malaria Venture

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  6. May 24, 2011 Quinine remained the mainstay of malaria treatment until the 1920s, when more effective synthetic anti-malarials became available. The most important of these drugs was chloroquine, which was extensively used, especially beginning in the 1940s. With heavy use, chloroquine resistance developed slowly.

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    Hydroxychloroquine is a quinoline medicine used to treat or prevent malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia. This medicine is not effective against all strains of malaria. A severe eye problem has happened with chloroquine. This may lead to lasting eyesight problems. The risk may be higher if you have some types of eye or kidney problems. The risk may also be higher with some doses of chloroquine, if you use chloroquine for longer than 5 years, or if you take certain other drugs like tamoxifen. Chloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites in countries where malaria is common. Malaria parasites can enter the body through these mosquito bites, and then live in body tissues such as red blood cells or the liver.

     
  7. READactor User

    Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for it started to develop widespread resistance to it. New Itch Receptors Identified Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures. How a new understanding of itch leads to better pain.
     
  8. Fitc Well-Known Member

    Dosing schedules not well established in children Case reports describe dosage regimens that are effective yet tolerated, such as 12.5 mg PO twice weekly over 2 yr in a child aged 4-6 yr, and 100 mg PO twice weekly over 5 months in a child aged 12 yr; mg/kg dosing not reported Hypersensitivity to chloroquine, 4-aminoquinolones Psoriasis, porphyria, retinal or visual field changes For prevention, may use proguanil concomitantly Shown to cause severe hypoglycemia including loss of consciousness that could be life-threatening in patients treated with or without antidiabetic medications; patients should be warned about risk of hypoglycemia and associated clinical signs and symptoms; patients presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of hypoglycemia during treatment with chloroquine should have blood glucose level checked and treatment reviewed as necessary Not effective in most areas; CDC recommends mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil - check CDC traveler information for specific recommendations for region May cause hemolysis in glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency; blood monitoring may be needed as hemolytic anemia may occur, in particular in association with other drugs that cause hemolysis Monitor CBC periodically with prolonged therapy Caution with history of auditory damage Caution with hepatic disease, alcoholism, and coadministration with other hepatotoxic drugs May provoke seizures in patients with history of epilepsy Antacids and kaolin reduce chloroquine absorption; separate administration by at least 4 hr Irreversible retinal damage observed in some patients; significant risk factors for retinal damage include daily doses of chloroquine phosphate 2.3 mg/kg of actual body weight, durations of use greater than five years, subnormal glomerular filtration, use of some concomitant drug products such as tamoxifen citrate, and concurrent macular disease A baseline ophthalmological examination should be performed within the first year of initiating therapy; for individuals with significant risk factors, monitoring should include annual examinations; discontinue if ocular toxicity is suspected; patient should be closely observed given that retinal changes (and visual disturbances) may progress even after cessation of therapy In individuals of Asian descent, retinal toxicity may first be noticed outside macula; it is recommended that visual field testing be performed in visual field of central 24 degrees instead of central 10 degrees May exacerbate heart failure Not effective against chloroquine- or hydroxychloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium species; information regarding geographic areas where resistance to chloroquine occurs, is available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (gov/malaria) Does not treat hypnozoite liver stage forms of Plasmodium and will therefore not prevent relapses of malaria due to P. ovale; additional treatment with an anti-malarial agent active against these forms, such as an 8-aminoquinoline, is required for the treatment of infections with P. ovale Cases of cardiomyopathy resulting in cardiac failure, in some cases with fatal outcome, reported during long term therapy at high doses; monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiomyopathy and discontinue chloroquine if cardiomyopathy develops; chronic toxicity should be considered when conduction disorders (bundle branch block / atrio-ventricular heart block) diagnosed; if cardiotoxicity suspected, prompt therapy discontinuation may prevent life-threatening complications QT interval prolongation, torsades de pointes, and ventricular arrhythmias reported; risk is greater if chloroquine is administered at high doses; fatal cases reported; use with caution in patients with cardiac disease, a history of ventricular arrhythmias, uncorrected hypokalemia and/or hypomagnesemia, or bradycardia ( There are no adequate and well-controlled studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women; usage during pregnancy should be avoided except in prophylaxis or treatment of malaria when benefit outweighs potential risk to fetus Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from chloroquine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue drug, taking into account potential clinical benefit of drug to mother A: Generally acceptable. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Chloroquine Dosage Guide with Precautions - What is chloroquine made of – Taxes and Bookkeeping Services. [email protected] FDA-Approved Drugs - Food and Drug Administration
     
  9. Str1ke XenForo Moderator

    Drug spotlight on hydroxychloroquine Lupus Foundation of. Hydroxychloroquine is generally prescribed at a daily dose of 6.5 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight. Using this formula, the dosage for a 150-pound person would be 443 mg/day, as one kilogram equals 2.2 pounds. Because HCQ is formulated as a 200 mg tablet, many people taking it for lupus will take two pills per day.

    Lupus Myositis Support and Understanding
     
  10. framzik User

    Common Medications That May Be Toxic to the Retina Jun 11, 2009 Canthaxanthine is a vitamin A derivative used in the treatment of psoriasis and eczema, and had been used previously as an oral tanning agent. Toxicity has been shown after high-dose oral therapy of greater than 0.5 mg/kg/day.

    Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Retinal Toxicity - American.